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JALYN (DUTASTERIDE AND TAMSULOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE): PHARMACOKINETICS

The pharmacokinetics of dutasteride and tamsulosin from Jalyn are comparable to the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride and tamsulosin when administered separately.

Absorption

The pharmacokinetic parameters of dutasteride and tamsulosin observed after administration of Jalyn capsules in a single dose, randomized, 3-period partial cross-over study are summarized in below.

Dutasteride

Following administration of a single 0.5-mg dose of a soft gelatin capsule, time to peak absolute bioavailability in 5 healthy subjects is approximately 60% (range: 40% to 94%).

Tamsulosin

Absorption of tamsulosin is essentially complete ( > 90%) following oral administration of 0.4-mg tamsulosin hydrochloride capsules under fasting conditions.

Tamsulosin exhibits linear kinetics following single and multiple dosing, with achievement of steady-state concentrations by the fifth day of once-daily dosing.

Effect of Food

Food does not affect the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride following administration of Jalyn (Dutasteride, Tamsulosin Hydrochloride). However, a mean 30% decrease in tamsulosin Cmax was observed when Jalyn was administered with food, similar to that seen when tamsulosin monotherapy was administered under fed versus fasting conditions.

Distribution

Dutasteride

Pharmacokinetic data following single and repeat oral doses show that dutasteride has a large volume of distribution (300 to 500 L). Dutasteride is highly bound to plasma albumin (99.0%) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (96.6%).

In a study of healthy subjects (n = 26) receiving dutasteride 0.5 mg/day for 12 months, semen dutasteride concentrations averaged 3.4 ng/mL (range: 0.4 to 14 ng/mL) at 12 months and, similar to serum, achieved steady-state concentrations at 6 months. On average, at 12 months 11.5% of serum dutasteride concentrations partitioned into semen.

Tamsulosin

The mean steady-state apparent volume of distribution of tamsulosin after intravenous administration to 10 healthy male adults was 16 L, which is suggestive of distribution into extracellular fluids in the body. Tamsulosin is extensively bound to human plasma proteins (94% to 99%), primarily alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG), with linear binding over a wide concentration range (20 to 576 600 ng/mL). The results of 2-way in vitro studies indicate that the binding of tamsulosin to human plasma proteins is not affected by diclofenac, amitriptyline, glyburide, simvastatin plus simvastatin-hydroxy acid metabolite, diazepam, warfarin, or propranolol. Likewise, tamsulosin had no effect on the extent of binding of these drugs.

Metabolism

Dutasteride

Dutasteride is extensively metabolized in humans. In vitro studies showed that dutasteride is metabolized by the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoenzymes. Both of these isoenzymes produced the 4'-hydroxydutasteride, 6-hydroxydutasteride, and the 6,4'-dihydroxydutasteride metabolites. In addition, the 15-hydroxydutasteride metabolite was formed by CYP3A4. Dutasteride is not metabolized in vitro by human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. In human serum following dosing to steady state, unchanged dutasteride, 3 major metabolites (4'-hydroxydutasteride, 1,2-dihydrodutasteride, and 6-hydroxydutasteride), and 2 minor metabolites (6,4'-dihydroxydutasteride and 15-hydroxydutasteride), as assessed by mass spectrometric response, have been detected. The absolute stereochemistry of the hydroxyl additions in the 6 and 15 positions is not known. In vitro, the 4'-hydroxydutasteride and 1,2-dihydrodutasteride metabolites are much less potent than dutasteride against both isoforms of human 5alpha-reductase. The activity of 6-beta-hydroxydutasteride is comparable to that of dutasteride.

Tamsulosin

There is no enantiomeric bioconversion from tamsulosin [R(-) isomer] to the S(+) isomer in humans. Tamsulosin is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver and less than 10% of the dose is excreted in urine unchanged. However, the pharmacokinetic profile of the metabolites in humans has not been established. In vitro studies indicate that CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are involved in metabolism of tamsulosin as well as some minor participation of other CYP isoenzymes. Inhibition of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes may lead to increased exposure to tamsulosin. The metabolites of tamsulosin undergo extensive conjugation to glucuronide or sulfate prior to renal excretion.

Incubations with human liver microsomes showed no evidence of clinically significant metabolic interactions between tamsulosin and amitriptyline, albuterol, glyburide, and finasteride. However, results of the in vitro testing of the tamsulosin interaction with diclofenac and warfarin were equivocal.

Excretion

Dutasteride

Dutasteride and its metabolites were excreted mainly in feces. As a percent of dose, there was approximately 5% unchanged dutasteride (approximately 1% to approximately 15%) and 40% as dutasteride-related metabolites (~2% to ~90%). Only trace amounts of unchanged dutasteride were found in urine ( < 1%). Therefore, on average, the dose unaccounted for approximated 55% (range: 5% to 97%). The terminal elimination half-life of dutasteride is approximately 5 weeks at steady state. The average steady-state serum dutasteride concentration was 40 ng/mL following 0.5 mg/day for 1 year. Following daily dosing, dutasteride serum concentrations achieve 65% of steady-state concentration after 1 month and approximately 90% after 3 months. Due to the long half-life of dutasteride, serum concentrations remain detectable (greater than 0.1 ng/mL) for up to 4 to 6 months after discontinuation of treatment.

Tamsulosin

On administration of the radiolabeled dose of tamsulosin to 4 healthy volunteers, 97% of the administered radioactivity was recovered, with urine (76%) representing the primary route of excretion compared to feces (21%) over 168 hours.

Following intravenous or oral administration of an immediate-release formulation, the elimination half-life of tamsulosin in plasma ranges from 5 to 7 hours. Because of absorption rate-controlled pharmacokinetics with tamsulosin hydrochloride capsules, the apparent half-life of tamsulosin is approximately 9 to 13 hours in healthy volunteers and 14 to 15 hours in the target population.

Tamsulosin undergoes restrictive clearance in humans, with a relatively low systemic clearance (2.88 L/hr).


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